Let us begin with the language Darwin uses when he first sketches his theory at the beginning of the fourth chapter of the Origin:
Growing up a shy and unassuming member of a wealthy British family, he appeared, at least to his father, to be idle and directionless. But even as a child, Darwin expressed an interest in nature. Later, while studying botany at Cambridge University, he was offered a chance to work as an unpaid naturalist on the HMS Beagle, a naval vessel embarking on an exploratory voyage around the world.
In the course of nearly five years at sea — during which time the Beagle surveyed the coast of South America and stopped in such places as Australia and, most famously, the Galapagos Islands — Darwin took advantage of countless opportunities to observe plant and animal life and to collect both living and fossilized specimens for later study.
After the Beagle returned to England in OctoberDarwin began reflecting on his observations and experiences, and over the next two years developed the basic outline of his groundbreaking theory of evolution through natural selection.
But beyond sharing his ideas with a close circle of scientist friends, Darwin told no one of his views on the origin and development of life. Indeed, he did not publish his now-famous volume, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, untilmore than 20 years after he had first formulated his theory.
On the Origin of Species may never have been written, let alone published, if it had not been for Alfred Russel Wallace, another British naturalist who independently proposed a strikingly similar theory in This being the age of Victorian gentlemen, it was agreed that the two scientists would jointly publish their writings on the subject.
The following year, Darwin published On the Origin of Species, a lengthy, fleshed-out treatment of his ideas on evolutionary theory.
The book was an immediate bestseller and quickly set off a firestorm of controversy. Yet the concept of species adaptation was not so radical at the time. Scientists had been debating whether animals evolved decades before Darwin put forth his theory. All existing creatures, he argued, descended from a small number of original or progenitor species.
Darwin compared the history of life to a great tree, its trunk representing these few common ancestors and an extensive system of branches and twigs symbolizing the great variety of life that has evolved from them.
This evolution, Darwin wrote, is due to two factors. The first factor, Darwin argued, is that each individual animal is marked by subtle differences that distinguish it from its parents. The second factor, Darwin argued, is that although variations are random, some of them convey distinct advantages — superior camouflage, a heartier constitution or greater speed, for example — that better equip a creature to survive in its environment.
A greater chance of survival allows for more opportunity to breed and pass on advantageous traits to a greater number of offspring.
Over time, an advantage spreads throughout a species; in turn, the species is more likely to endure and reproduce. Thus, over the course of many generations, subtle changes occur and accumulate, eventually morphing into bigger changes and, possibly, even a new species. Yet evolution continued to be vigorously rejected by British and American churches because, religious leaders argued, the theory directly contradicted many of the core teachings of the Christian faith.
Darwinian thinking also appeared to contradict the notion, central to Christianity and many other faiths, that man had a special, God-given place in the natural order. Instead, proponents of evolution pointed to signs in human anatomy — remnants of a tailbone, for instance — showing common ancestry with other mammals.
There seems to be too much misery in the world. Regardless, it was around this time that the British scientific establishment gained the upper hand in the debate over evolution. And while the public disagreement between ecclesiastical and scientific authorities did not end in the s, religious thinkers became more wary of directly challenging evolution on scientific grounds.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, churches instead focused much of their energy on resisting the idea that man had evolved from lower animal orders and hence had no special place in creation or, for that matter, a soul.
Indeed, while some churches, including the Catholic Church, eventually accepted evolution as a God-directed mechanism of biological development, none questioned the role of God as the sole creator of man. By the time of his death, inDarwin was considered the greatest scientist of his age.
Moreover, the very church his theory had challenged accorded him a full state funeral and burial in Westminster Abbey, near the grave of Sir Isaac Newton.
Indeed, his interment in the abbey was seen by some contemporaries as symbolic of an uneasy truce between science and religion in Britain. Julia Margaret Cameron Report Materials.
· Charles Darwin was the first scientist to publish a coherent theory of Evolution by Natural selection. He wasn’t the first to intuitively suspect that species evolved from a common ancestor, but he was the first to publish a coherent theory and bring forth evidence for regardbouddhiste.com://regardbouddhiste.com · The theory of evolution by natural selection, first formulated in Darwin's book "On the Origin of Species" in , is the process by which organisms change over time as a result of changes in regardbouddhiste.com Darwin.
There is no doubt about the fact that the change from a static-typological worldview to a dynamic-evolutionary worldview represents one of the greatest paradigm shifts in the history of regardbouddhiste.com Charles Darwin and Evolution Charles Darwin was born in England in He enjoyed studying biology and geology, and in , he got the opportunity to serve as a naturalist on a trip around the Video Duration: 7 min.
Henslow's note to Darwin, asking if he would be interested in being recommended for this post, arrived at the Darwin home, ‘the Mount’, while Charles Darwin was on a regardbouddhiste.com · Charles Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection made us rethink our place in the world.
The idea that humans shared a common ancestor regardbouddhiste.com