Timeline of the 20th century Map of the British Empire as of At its height, it was the largest empire in history. Nationalism became a major political issue in the world in the 20th century, acknowledged in international law along with the right of nations to self-determinationofficial decolonization in the mid-century, and related regional conflicts.
Some of its victories in the legislative arena were completely inadvertent, while one of its grandest objects and subject of its greatest efforts resulted in defeat.
Moreover, the movement was dominated by an intellectual and professional leadership at some distance from ordinary women. However, many unmarried and poor women had already participated in the industrial economy for a century.
With demobilization after the war, more than three million women quit their jobs to return to their roles as homemakers or were let go to make room for returning men. Roosevelt fought to keep protective legislation for women in terms of working hours or physical tasks, and Paul wanted an Equal Rights Amendment ERA that made women completely equal under the law.
Post-war American culture was rather conservative and supported traditional roles for women. The images of women as mothers and homemakers on the new media of television were quite reflective of the reality for many suburban women.
The marriage rate was increasing, a Baby Boom resulted in more than 76 million births between andand the divorce rate dropped. The American people supported traditional roles for women, and as one post-war poll noted, 63 percent were opposed to married women working outside the home. Infeminist author Betty Friedan wrote a path-breaking book, The Feminine Mystique that challenged traditional roles for women.
It was a strange stirring, a sense of dissatisfaction…Each suburban wife struggled with it alone. But, some women were poorer and did not have the luxury of choosing whether to work or not because necessity forced them into the workplace.
Bythe number of working women had risen to 35 percent of the workforce with increasing numbers of married women. This probably reflected the fact that many families wanted the extra disposable income to participate in the growing consumer economy more than an increasing desire of women to find personal satisfaction from working.
Women were attending higher education in higher numbers, earning nearly 40 percent of the degrees by and the numbers would continue to grow.
The Pill changed the sexual lives of women throughout the nation. The Pill became involved in constitutional issues when the Supreme Court took up the question. Inthe Supreme Court would overturn anti-contraception laws in Griswold v.
But, should the courts lay down new rights in decisions or should the people be the ones who would define those rights through the amendment process? By overturning the anti-contraceptive laws of a vast majority of states, the Supreme Court undermined the rights of states to determine laws for their own citizens.
To further muddy the waters, many northern liberals and labor unions supported protective legislation for women and opposed the amendments to the Civil Rights act that gave legal protection against discrimination to women. The Statement of Purpose sought to ban discrimination against women with legal and constitutional protections by the government.
Over the next few years, NOW devoted a great deal of its efforts to lobbying several different federal agencies for enforcing Title VII part of the Civil Rights Act of that banned employment discrimination on the basis of race, sex, or national originto pressuring Congress to pass the ERA, and expanded its agenda to include other feminist issues such as recognizing that lesbian rights were "a legitimate concern of feminism.
Inboth houses of Congress passed the ERA by overwhelming majorities to fulfill the two-thirds requirement for constitutional amendments. The ERA needed three-fourths of the state legislatures to ratify the amendment before later extended to for it to become the law of the land.
The proposed amendment was quickly ratified by dozens of states and then stalled, eventually winning ratification in 35 states just short of the necessary 38, and failed. Schlafly advanced the view, embraced by many religious conservatives and other Americans, that the ERA would have baleful consequences for women.
She said that the constitutional amendment would subject women equally to the military draft, end protections in child custody and divorce proceedings, lead to the decline of the traditional family, support abortion rights, back homosexual rights, and lead to unisex bathrooms.
In the landmark case of Roe v.
Wadethe Supreme Court legalized abortion throughout the country based upon the precedent established in the Griswold decision. The movement to legalize abortion had adopted a lengthy and costly campaign to change abortion laws in the states, but then it shifted its strategy to the courts.
Taney in the Dred Scott decision, sought to use the Court to settle a highly contentious social and political question.The civil rights movement (also known as the African-American civil rights movement, American civil rights movement and other terms) was a decades-long movement with the goal of securing legal rights for African Americans that other Americans already held.
The Civil Rights Movement And The Second Reconstruction, — _3_brooke_edwin_nara_PSDxml Image courtesy of National Archives and Records Administration Sworn in to the United States Senate on January 3, , Edward For an overview of the movement and its impact on lateth-century black America see Manning.
The 20th century was a time of enormous changes in American life. The beginning of the 21st century seems a suitable time to look back over the past years and see how the United States has developed, for better and worse, during that period of its history. Encyclopedia of the United States in the Nineteenth Century While other resources focus on different aspects of the 19th century, such as the Civil War or immigration, this is the first truly comprehensive treatment to cover all aspects of 19th-century history including: population, politics and government, economy and work, society and culture.
This database provides access to digital collections of primary sources (photos, letters, diaries, artifacts, etc.) that document the history of women in the United States.
These diverse collections range from Ancestral Pueblo pottery to Katrina Thomas's photographs of ethnic weddings from the late 20th century.
In the United States, the second half of the 20th century brought about historical socio-political movements that revolutionized American culture.
Following the end of World War II in , the U.S. entered a new era, experiencing a sharp growth in population, a .