Theoretical Models Related to the Study of Racial Discrimination and Children of Color Ecological Theory Bronfenbrenner 42 concluded that relationships between a child and his or her immediate environment microsystem and the larger social environment macrosystem must be evaluated to fully understand development. For example, homeless boys aged 10 to 14 years in Nepal had higher mean cortisol levels, whereas boys in urban settings had lower values of acute-phase protein of inflammatory response to pathogen exposure and higher antibodies to EBV titers, as well as lower cardiovascular fitness levels and vagal tone. Social inequality was also associated with higher insulin, glucose, insulin resistance, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels in US children after the authors controlled for potentially confounding variables. McEwen has argued that racial discrimination creates a chronic biological challenge to human regulatory systems that should be evaluated empirically.
John Gowdy writes, "Assumptions about human behaviour that members of market societies believe to be universal, that humans are naturally competitive and acquisitive, and that social stratification is natural, do not apply to many hunter-gatherer peoples. Original affluent society Anthropologists identify egalitarian cultures as " kinship -oriented," because they appear to value social harmony more than wealth or status.
These cultures are contrasted with economically oriented cultures including states in which status and material wealth are prized, and stratification, competition, and conflict are common. Kinship-oriented cultures actively work to prevent social hierarchies from developing because they believe that such stratification could lead to conflict and instability.
A good example is given by Richard Borshay Lee in his account of the Khoisanwho practice "insulting the meat. The meat itself is then distributed evenly among the entire social group, rather than kept by the hunter.
The level of teasing is proportional to the size of the kill. Lee found this out when he purchased an entire cow as a gift for the group he was living with, and was teased for weeks afterward about it since obtaining that much meat could be interpreted as showing off. According to David H.
Turnerin this arrangement, every person is expected to give everything of any resource they have to any other person who needs or lacks it at the time.
This has the benefit of largely eliminating social problems like theft and relative poverty. While many such variables cut across time and place, the relative weight placed on each variable and specific combinations of these variables will differ from place to place over time.
One task of research is to identify accurate mathematical models that explain how these many variables combine to produce stratification in a given society. Grusky provides a good overview of the historical development of sociological theories of social stratification and a summary of contemporary theories and research in this field.
In general, sociologists recognize that there are no "pure" economic variables, as social factors are integral to economic value. However, the variables posited to affect social stratification can be loosely divided into economic and other social factors.
Economic inequality Strictly quantitative economic variables are more useful to describing social stratification than explaining how social stratification is constituted or maintained.
Income is the most common variable used to describe stratification and associated economic inequality in a society. Social status Social variables, both quantitative and qualitativetypically provide the most explanatory power in causal research regarding social stratification, either as independent variables or as intervening variables.
Three important social variables include genderraceand ethnicitywhich, at the least, have an intervening effect on social status and stratification in most places throughout the world. Some of these variables may have both causal and intervening effects on social status and stratification.
For example, absolute age may cause a low income if one is too young or too old to perform productive work. The social perception of age and its role in the workplace, which may lead to ageismtypically has an intervening effect on employment and income.
Social scientists are sometimes interested in quantifying the degree of economic stratification between different social categories, such as men and women, or workers with different levels of education.
An index of stratification has been recently proposed by Zhou for this purpose. Gender inequality Gender is one of the most pervasive and prevalent social characteristics which people use to make social distinctions between individuals.
Gender distinctions are found in economic- kinship- and caste-based stratification systems. Entire societies may be classified by social scientists according to the rights and privileges afforded to men or women, especially those associated with ownership and inheritance of property.
Sex- and gender-based division of labor is historically found in the annals of most societies and such divisions increased with the advent of industrialization. Other differences in employment between men and women lead to an overall gender-based pay-gap in many societies, where women as a category earn less than men due to the types of jobs which women are offered and take, as well as to differences in the number of hours worked by women.
Racism Racism consists of both prejudice and discrimination based in social perceptions of observable biological differences between peoples. It often takes the form of social actionspractices or beliefs, or political systems in which different races are perceived to be ranked as inherently superior or inferior to each other, based on presumed shared inheritable traits, abilities, or qualities.
In a given society, those who share racial characteristics socially perceived as undesirable are typically under-represented in positions of social power, i. Minority members in such a society are often subjected to discriminatory actions resulting from majority policies, including assimilationexclusionoppressionexpulsionand extermination.
For example, members associated with a particular race may be assigned a slave statusa form of oppression in which the majority refuses to grant basic rights to a minority that are granted to other members of the society. More covert racismsuch as that which many scholars posit is practiced in more contemporary societies, is socially hidden and less easily detectable.
Covert racism often feeds into stratification systems as an intervening variable affecting income, educational opportunities, and housing.A summary of The Stratification System of the United States in 's Social Stratification and Inequality.
Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Social Stratification and Inequality and what it means. This complex formula takes into account three factors: Education; School systems in this country are not uniform.
stratification systems are the one that allow mobility - The employee-employer relations. - The division of labour. - Property relations. These factors determine political and non-political institutions and even the prevalent ideologies in a society.
education, gender, ethnic . Lamberty G, Pachter L, Crnic K.
Social stratification: implications for understanding racial, ethnic, and class disparities in child health and development. In: The Role of Partnerships: Second Annual Meeting of Child Health Services Researchers. The Key Factors For Social Stratification Sociology Essay. Print there are other factors that influence the clothes that a person may choose to put on.
For example some well-off teenagers may have clothes in line with the fashion more that those that would be said to be of their class.”(social Australia) In this rule, someone can dress in.
Social stratification affects people’s lives and can be manifested in various ways in society. A caste system may be determined by many ethnic and cultural factors. European imperial powers in Africa imposed a caste system Following Weber's lead. Ethnic stratification is a rank order of groups, each made up of people with presumed common cultural or physical characteristics interacting in patterns of dominance and subordination.
To begin with, all systems of ethnic stratification are products of the contact of previously separated g.