He was the third pharaoh of the 19th dynasty, ruling for 66 years from to BC during the New Kingdom Period. After his death he was revered by his ancestors and later Egyptian rulers as a great king and a successful general. Especially for the time in which he lived, Ramesses II lived an extraordinarily long-life. By the time of his death at the age of 90, he had outlived many of his wives and children; however, his long life, and correspondingly long reign as king, allowed him to leave behind a great legacy as a builder.
See Article History Alternative Titles: Ancient Thebes covered an area of some 36 square miles 93 square km. Egypt, ancientA discussion of some of the most important sites associated with ancient Egypt. The nome province of Wase, the fourth of Upper Egyptis known to have existed from the 4th dynasty onward.
The earliest monuments that have survived at Thebes proper date from the 11th dynasty — bcewhen the local nomarchs governors united Egypt under their rule. During the 12th dynasty —the royal residence was moved to the area of Memphisbut the kings of Egypt continued to honour Amontheir family god, and hence built temples at Thebes.
After their invasion of Egypt and seizure of dynastic power aboutthe Hyksos had little or no control over Thebes, and it was the lords of that city who finally drove the Hyksos out of Egypt c.
Then began the era of greatest prosperity for Thebes. The 18th-dynasty pharaohs rebuilt it and made it their capital, embellishing its temples with the spoils of Asia and the tribute of Nubia. During the 15th century bce great palaces, brightly painted and surrounded with gardens, rose on either bank of the river.
Many noble families kept estates in the area, and in the crowded streets foreign traders and mercenaries mingled with the citizens. The pharaohs of the New Kingdom vied with each other in building great temples on the east bank and even larger mortuary temples on the west.
The height of Theban prosperity was reached in the 14th century bce in the reign of Amenhotep III Amenophis III; reigned —53much of whose vast wealth from foreign tribute was poured into the temples of Amon. For a brief period in the reign of his son Akhenaton —36Thebes fell on evil times; the city was abandoned by the court, and the worship of Amon was proscribed.
With its restoration by Tutankhamen reigned —23however, Thebes soon regained its revenues and prestigeand it retained both through the reigns of Seti I —79 and Ramses II —13who still resided for part of every year in Thebes. Under the later Ramessids, Thebes began to decline; the government fell, it seems, into grave economic difficulties.
During the reign of Ramses IX —08about bce, a series of investigations into the plundering of royal tombs in the necropolis of western Thebes uncovered proof of corruption in high places, following an accusation made by the mayor of the east bank against his colleague on the west.
The finding of these two hiding places in andrespectively, was one of the great events of modern archaeological discovery. Such maladministration in Thebes led to unrest.
Control of local affairs tended to come more and more into the hands of the high priests of Amon, leading to a situation in which, after the death of the last Ramses in the 11th century, the government of Egypt was shared between the pharaoh in Tanis and the high pontiff at Thebes.
The Napatan Nubian pharaohs made Thebes their capital in the 7th century bce. Archaeology Four of the main complexes of ruins are discussed in separate articles. Karnak temple complexOverview of the temple complex at Karnak, Egypt.
Although they were designed for the performance of rites connected with the mortuary cult of the builder, they were all dedicated to Amonthe supreme god of Thebes, and had the character and essential form of a New Kingdom temple.
They were built in a sequence generally corresponding to a topographic arrangement from north to south. Only traces of most of the earlier ones remain. The most important will be mentioned here. The approach from the valley led through an avenue of sphinxesand in the forecourt was a garden planted with trees and vines.
On either side of the sloping ramp leading to the next level, against the terrace face, was a gallery whose roof was supported on a double row of columns; a similar gallery ran along the westward side of the court on the next level, with side chapels dedicated to Anubis and Hathor.
The top terrace contained a hall of columns, with further chapels on either side and a sanctuary dug into the cliff behind. Many of the surviving series of reliefs in the colonnades and chapels are of great beauty and considerable interest: Hirmer Fotoarchiv, Munich The mortuary temple of Amenhotep III reigned —53 bce must have been the largest and most splendid of all the Theban temples.
It was, however, almost completely demolished by later pharaohs, and all that is left today are a few foundations, a huge stela 33 feet 10 metres high, and the two great statues known as the Colossi of Memnonwhich once flanked the gateway in front of the temple pylon but now sit like lonely sentinels in the middle of a field.
The statues represent Amenhotep III but the name Memnon is of later Greek origin; with their crowns the statues were about 70 feet 21 metres high, each hewn from a single block of stone.Feb 17, · The architectural history of Ramesses' reign must now be rewritten, in the light of recent discoveries made in Tomb 5 of the Valley of the Kings.
Lives from Ancient Egypt by John Ray (Profile. Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. Ramses II was ancient Egypt's third pharaoh of the 19 th dynasty.
He was born in BC and reigned from to BC. Interesting Ramses ii Facts: Ramses II is also known by other similar names including Ramesses the Great, Ozymandias, and just as Rameses. Ramses II's reign was the second longest reign in Egyptian history at Karnak is an ancient Egyptian temple precinct located on the east bank of the Nile River in Thebes (modern-day Luxor).
It covers more than hectares, an area larger than some ancient cities. Rameses II (right 19th dynasty), son of Seti I, was around thirty years old when he became king of Egypt – and then reigned for 67 years.
He had many wives, among them some of his own near relatives, and was the father of about sons and 51 daughters. Ramesses II, or Ramesses the Great, is one of the most famous figures in the history of Ancient Egypt. He was the third pharaoh of the 19th dynasty, ruling for 66 years from to BC during the New Kingdom Period.